Aquamarine is the birthstone for March.
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LEARNING CENTER
GLOSSARY
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



Agate

Agate is a variety of Chalcedony Quartz and comes in many different color combinations. No two agates are alike. Varieties of agate include Blue, Blue Lace, Crazy Lace, Green, Indian, Moss, Tree, and Wood. Chalcedony (Agate) are "Hardness 7" on the Mohs scale.

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AGS

American Gem Society - A professional jeweler's society founded in 1934. AGS has a laboratory which grades diamonds and offers a diamond grading report. AGS has a cut grading system for round diamonds.

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AGS Diamond Cut Grade

The American Gem Society has developed a system for classifying cut quality. The AGS system uses a 0 to 10 system: Cut grade 0 as Ideal, 2 as Very Fine and 10 being the lowest grade and quality. The AGS cut grade 0 ideal endorses table percentages between 51.6% to 57.5% as ideal with 57.6 to 62% as very fine AGS cut grade 2.

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Alloy

An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals.

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Amber

A delicate, fossilized tree resin that often locks in secrets from the past. Amber is available in a wide array of colors, the most popular ranging from yellow to orange, mimicking the color of honey touched by the setting sun. Other less common colors of amber include red, green, blue, violet and black. Ranging from transparent to opaque, the finest amber is clear with little or no cloudiness.

Amethyst

Amethyst is a member of the quartz family. Amethyst displays a majestic hue of purple, moving from very light to very dark. With purple being the chosen color of royalty, amethyst has enjoyed an unwavering popularity dating back thousands of years. The finest quality of amethyst exhibits a high degree of transparency and a rich deep purple color enhanced by flashes of burgundy or rose. Amethyst are most commonly found in Brazil, Uruguay, Canada and the United States (North Carolina). Amethyst is the birthstone for February.

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Anniversary Band

Typically given for wedding anniversaries, an anniversary band is a ring that is set with one or more rows of gems, usually diamonds. The diamonds may go completely, three quarters, or half way around the finger. Any anniversary is appropriate for giving this ring, however, recently the diamond anniversary band has been promoted in major advertising campaigns as the perfect gift for the tenth wedding anniversary. An anniversary band can be used in addition to, or instead of, a traditional wedding ring.

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Appraisal

An appraisal is a written estimate of the approximate retail replacement value of the item described. Appraisals can also be used for insurance purposes.

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Aquamarine

Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family and is related to emerald in composition. The Greeks proclaimed this highly prized, light blue gem aquamarine, because it sparkles like the sea touched by the sun. Found in an array of pastel tones from very light to medium blue, aquamarine is often tinted by a splash of green. The delicate greenish blue of a fine aquamarine conjures up images of dancing light on the purest of tropical waters. Most aquamarines come from Brazil. Aquamarine is the birthstone for March.

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Baguette Cut

A baguette cut is a gemstone or diamond that is cut in a rectangular shape, which is typically used to accent a central stone. A tapered baguette has one short end narrower than the opposite end, forming a trapezoid. A term derived from the French, meaning long and thin as in baguette breads.

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Bail

A bail is the attachment at the top of a pendant, enabling the pendant to hang from a chain.

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Band

A simple ring of equal width around its circumference.

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Bangle

A one-piece bracelet that is wide enough to slip onto the wrist. It can also be made of two hinged pieces that are clasped around the wrist.

Bar Setting

A variation on the channel setting, bar settings are usually used for wedding bands or designer rings. In the bar setting, thin metal bars are placed between each gemstones on a band to hold them securely in place. This design protects the girdle of the round gemstones or diamonds, holds them securely in place, and offers a smooth, sleek appearance. Bar and channel settings typically cost more than prong settings.

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Baroque Pearls

Large oddly shaped pearls that are usually used as art pieces.

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Bead Setting

A method of setting stones even with the surface of metal by raising beads from the metal itself. The beads act as prongs to secure the stones.

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Beaded Bracelets

Bracelets made from beads are fairly common in Southwestern American Indian jewelry lore. They are often multi-colored beads, but single colour ones also exist.

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Belcher

A claw style ring mounting that is common in rings for men. The mounting is one piece with the prongs being part of the shank.

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Beryl

Beryl is a family of gemstones that includes: green beryl, aquamarine, emerald, heliodor (pink), morganite (yellow), and red.

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Bezel

Any part that incorporates a continuous groove to fit something, generally a gem stone or diamond.

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Bezel Setting

A bezel setting holds a gemstone or diamond in place using a thin band of metal that surrounds the stone at its middle, or girdle. Bezel settings can completely or partially surround the gem stone or diamond, depending on the style and look desired. This type of setting provides good protection for the middle and bottom portions of a gemstone or diamond. Bezel settings can have straight or scalloped edges, and can be molded to accommodate many shapes of stones.

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Birthstone

A birthstone is a gift of a precious material (jewelry, mainly gemstones; themselves traditionally associated with various qualities) that symbolizes the month of birth in the Gregorian calendar. It is sometimes also called birthday stone (cf. infra; but that word is, confusingly, sometimes used as a synonym for an anniversary gift, which is related to the recipient's age, that is, year of birth).

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Birthstone Bracelets

A birthstone bracelet is a gift of a precious material (jewelry, mainly gemstones; themselves traditionally associated with various qualities) that symbolizes the month of birth in the Gregorian calendar in the form of a bracelet. It is sometimes also called birthday stone (cf. infra; but that word is, confusingly, sometimes used as a synonym for an anniversary gift, which is related to the recipient's age, that is, year of birth).

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Birthstone Earrings

Birthstone earrings are a gift of a precious material (jewelry, mainly gemstones; themselves traditionally associated with various qualities) that symbolizes the month of birth in the Gregorian calendar in the form of earrings. It is sometimes also called birthday stone (cf. infra; but that word is, confusingly, sometimes used as a synonym for an anniversary gift, which is related to the recipient's age, that is, year of birth).

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Birthstone Pendants

Birthstone pendants are a gift of a precious material (jewelry, mainly gemstones; themselves traditionally associated with various qualities) that symbolizes the month of birth in the Gregorian calendar in the form of a pendant. It is sometimes also called birthday stone (cf. infra; but that word is, confusingly, sometimes used as a synonym for an anniversary gift, which is related to the recipient's age, that is, year of birth).

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Birthstone Rings

Birthstone rings are a gift of a precious material (jewelry, mainly gemstones; themselves traditionally associated with various qualities) that symbolizes the month of birth in the Gregorian calendar in the form of a rings. It is sometimes also called birthday stone (cf. infra; but that word is, confusingly, sometimes used as a synonym for an anniversary gift, which is related to the recipient's age, that is, year of birth).
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Biwa Pearls

A Biwa pearl is a pearl that comes from a specific region in Lake Biwa, Japan.

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Black Pearls (also know as Tahitian Pearls)

Black pearls that are gray to black with green, blue or rose overtones.

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Blemish

A blemish is a defect in a gemstone or diamond that is found at the surface. Examples of blemishes include pits, nicks, scratches, chips or even an extra facet where none should be. A blemish is an imperfection on the outside of a diamond or gemstone, which differs from an inclusion. An inclusion is internal to the gemstone or diamond.

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Blister Pearls

A blister pearl is a pearl that grows attached to the oyster shell on its side.

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Blue Topaz

Blue topaz is light brown or colorless when mined, but turns blue when exposed to light or heat. The largest producer of topaz is Brazil. Blue topaz is one of the birthstones for December.

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Box Chain

A box chain is a chain with wide, square links that form boxes.

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Box Clasp

A box clasp has a hollow housing with a groove in which a spring tongue clicks into place to secure the clasp shut.

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Bridal Jewelry

Bridal jewelry is a general term used to describe the category of wedding rings, engagement rings, gifts for the bride or groom and gifts for the best man, maid of honor, ushers, bridesmaids and others taking part in the wedding ceremony.

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Brilliance

Brilliance describes the amount of light a gemstone or diamond reflects to create sparkle.

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Brilliant Cut

A brilliant cut is a type of round cut with facets designed to produce the greatest brilliance. The brilliant cut is the most common style of diamond cutting. The standard brilliant cut consists of 32 facets plus a table above the girdle and 24 facets plus a culet below the girdle.

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Briolette Cut

A gemstone or diamond that is cut in a teardrop form. This type of cut is used in many drops and pendants.

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Brooch

A brooch is an ornamental piece of jewelry with a pin and clasp to be attached to clothing, etc.

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Brushed Finish

Brushed finish, also known as "satin" finish, is a texturing technique used on jewelry metals where a series of tiny parallel lines are scratched on the surface with a wire brush.

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Buttercup

A buttercup is a six-prong setting, with tall prongs, that resembles a flower. The setting is scalloped in design.

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Button Earrings

Button earrings are flat, typically round earrings that sit on the earlobe and have no dangling parts.

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Byzantine Chain

A Byzantine chain is a type of chain that has close-fitting links, which create an intricate design and form a tubular chain.

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Cabochon

A cabochon is a smooth, round, unfaceted gemstone cut. It's often used to reveal the beauty of semiprecious stones. Their shape can be: oval, round, triangle, square or teardrop.

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Carat Weight

A carat is a very accurate unit of weight that is used for diamonds and gemstones. The word carat is derived from the carob seed, which was used in the days of antiquity as counterweights on scales for small measurements because Carob seeds were extremely similar in weight. One carat is equal to 100 points.

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Carbon

A diamond is composed of pure carbon. Carbon, when subjected to tremendous amounts of heat and pressure, crystallizes. However, many diamonds do not completely crystallize. As a diamond crystal forms, some Carbon may not be crystallized resulting in birthmarks known as inclusions. Inclusions aid jewelers in identifying diamonds and make every diamond unique. The best way to identify your diamond is to know what its inclusions look like, unless of course you are fortunate enough to own a flawless diamond that has perfect crystal structure and no inclusions.

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Certification

A certification is a grading report that is given to a diamond or gemstone by a reputable and recognized gemological laboratory that defines the physical characteristics and quality rating of a gem. Typically a diamond or colored gem is rated for quality using the Four C's: Cut, Color, Clarity and Carat Weight.

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Chalcedony

Chalcedony was once believed to protect from the Evil Eye and give the owner a calm disposition.

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Champagne color diamond

A champagne colored diamond has a light brownish color.

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Channel Setting

Channel setting is the art of setting gemstones or diamonds in a channel. This setting has two walls of metal between which a gem or diamond is set, so that it appears suspended in a groove. Channel setting is generally used for stones of similar size, but graduated gemstones or diamonds can also be channel set in this manner. A piece of jewelry with a groove for stones to be set in is also referred to as a channel setting.

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Charm

A charm is a decorative pendant or trinket that is worn on a bracelet, necklace or earring.

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Charm Bracelets

A charm bracelet is an item of jewelry worn around the wrist. It carries personal charms: decorative pendants or trinkets which are signifiers of important things in the wearer's life. In recent history, Italian charm bracelets have become trendy. While traditional charms dangle, Italian charms feature individual pieces soldered flat onto the surface of the link.

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Children's Jewelry

Children's jewelry is a form of personal adornment specifically sized for children, manifesting itself as necklaces, rings, earrings and bracelets. Children's jewelry may be made from any material, usually gemstones, precious metals or shells. Factors affecting the choice of materials include cultural differences and the availability of the materials. Children's jewelry may be appreciated because of its material properties, its patterns or for meaningful symbols.

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Chiton Setting

A chiton setting (also called coronet or arcade setting) is one in which the stone is held in by many metal claws around a metal ring.

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Citrine

A member of the quartz family, the citrine is prized for its sunny yellow to earthy brown color. It takes its name from "citron", the French word for lemon. Citrine is found mainly in Brazil, as well as in Uruguay, Scotland and the United States (North Carolina). Citrine is one of the birthstones for November as well as the anniversary gemstone for the 13th year of marriage.

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Claddagh Rings

An Irish friendship ring. It is traditionally used to indicate the state of romantic availability.

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Clarity

Clarity is one of the 4 C's of diamond grading. Diamonds and gemstones with the highest clarity contain few or no inclusions (imperfections) in the stone's crystalline structure. Clarity is graded with a 10x magnifier. The clarity rating of a diamond ranges from FL (flawless) to I (inclusions visible to the naked eye).

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Clarity Enhancement

A diamond is chemically formed from a natural grain. When spaces are formed within that grain, an imperfection is formed. Through clarity enhancement, it is now possible to fill in those cracks with material, improving the imperfections as well as the overall appearance of the diamond. This process is reversible, meaning that the enhancement could be taken out of the stone by applying direct heat source to the stone. If such a direct heat source is applied to the stone - the treatment could be done over without causing any damage to the stone.

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Clarity Grade

The term grade is used to describe the amount of, or absence of, inclusions within a diamond or other gemstone. A diamond's clarity grading scale consists of eleven clarity grades.

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Clasp

A clasp is a device used to connect two ends of a necklace, bracelet, watch bracelet or watchstrap.

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Class Rings

Worn by students and alumni in commemoration of their graduation.

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Claw Setting

A claw setting is one in which a series of metal prongs (called claws) holds a stone securely in a setting (the claws grips the stone just above the girdle of the stone), with no metal directly under the stone (it is an open setting). A claw setting lets light in under the stone, so this type of setting is usually used for transparent, faceted stones. The modern-day claw setting became popular in the 1800's.

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Cleavage

Cleavage is the natural way in which a gemstone or diamond has the tendency to break along its crystal structure.

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Clip-Back or Clip-On Earring

Designed for non-pierced ears. Works like a hinge to secure the earring to the earlobe.

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Cloisonnt

Cloisonnt is a method of applying enamel to metal in which the design is first outlined on the metal surface using a metal wire. The space between the wires is filled with enamel and then fired to a glassy sheen.

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Closed Setting

A closed setting is one in which the back of the stone is not exposed (the metal is not cut away behind the stone).

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Cloudy

A cloud is a type of inclusion. However, unlike carbon inclusions, which are black, "clouds" are white milky areas (clusters of tiny crystals) inherent in a diamond or gemstone.

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Cluster Ring

A cluster ring is set with many small gemstones or diamonds. The gemstones or diamonds may be of similar or different colors or sizes.

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Cluster Setting

A cluster setting has small stones set clustered around a larger center stone.

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Clutch

A clutch is a device that is used to secure a piece of jewelry, such as backings for earrings.

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Collar Bar

A collar bar is worn beneath a tie, which is attached to the collar of a shirt.

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Color

Color is one of the 4 C's of diamond grading. The letters D through Z are used to designate a diamond's color with D being colorless and Z-graded stones having a lot of color.

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Colored Stones

All gemstones other than diamonds, or colored Diamonds.

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Comfort Fit Ring

In a comfort fit ring, the inner edges of the ring are very much rounded and smooth, making the interior of the ring looking similar to a slight dome profile. This is done to avoid discomfort due to sharp angles.

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Cubic Zirconia

Cubic Zirconia, or CZ, is a hard, relatively inexpensive stone created in laboratories and often cut to resemble a diamond. Cubic zirconia was developed in 1977.

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Cufflinks

A cufflink is a decorative fastener worn by men or women to fasten the two sides of the cuff on a dress shirt or blouse..

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CZ Earrings

Cubic Zirconia Earrings, also known as CZ earrings, are earrings created with a hard, relatively inexpensive stone created in laboratories and often cut to resemble a diamond. Cubic zirconia was developed in 1977.

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CZ Pendants

Cubic Zirconia Pendants, also known as CZ Pendant, is a pendant created with a hard, relatively inexpensive stone created in laboratories and often cut to resemble a diamond. Cubic zirconia was developed in 1977.

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CZ Rings

Cubic Zirconia Rings, also known as CZ Rings, are rings that contain a hard, relatively inexpensive stone created in laboratories and often cut to resemble a diamond. Cubic zirconia was developed in 1977.

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Cuff Links

Cuff links are jewelry that is usually designed with a post and hinge that goes through the two buttonholes of a shirt (French cuffs - without buttons). The hinge opens to create a "T" that secures the shirt cuff.

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Culet

The culet is the minute facet on the tip of the pavilion of a brilliant cut diamond.

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Cultured Pearls

A cultured pearl is created by the insertion of a grain of sand into an oyster. The oyster's protective coating slowly develops into the pearl. Most pearls available today are cultured. CFW is an abbreviation for cultured freshwater pearls. Cultured pearl is the birthstone for June.

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Cushion Cut

A cushion cut is a gemstone that is cut to mimic a square, yet has rounded edges. The cut is usually brilliant to give the highest light refraction.

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Custom Design

Custom designed jewelry is made to order.

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Cut

Cut is one of the 4 C's of diamond grading. How well a diamond is cut has a lot to do with the stone's fire and brilliance. A diamond that is cut either too shallow or too deep will not be as brilliant as a properly cut diamond.

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Dangle (Drop) Earrings

A dangle or drop earring is a long earring that extends below the earlobe.

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Demi-parure

A demi-parure is a matching set of jewelry, usually containing a necklace, earrings, and a pin.

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Deployant Buckle

A deployant buckle is a three-folding clasp, which connects the two ends of a watch bracelet and allows enough room for placing the watch on the wrist when fully extended.

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Depth

Depth is the distance from the very top of a diamond or gemstone to the very bottom of a diamond or gemstone.

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Diamond

The hardest, rarest, densest natural substance known to man. A precious gemstone composed of pure Carbon. A diamond's quality is rated in accordance with the Four C's: Cut, Color, Clarity and Carat Weight. While Africa is known as the Diamond continent, it is actually in Australia that the largest reserves are to be found - including the very rare and highly valued pink and red fancy colored diamonds.

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Diamond accent

A diamond accent is any jewelry that has one or more diamonds with a combined carat weight of less than one-fourth of a carat.
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Diamond Bracelets

The hardest, rarest, densest natural substance known to man contained within a bracelet. A precious gemstone composed of pure Carbon. A diamond's quality is rated in accordance with the Four C's: Cut, Color, Clarity and Carat Weight. While Africa is known as the Diamond continent, it is actually in Australia that the largest reserves are to be found - including the very rare and highly valued pink and red fancy colored diamonds.
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Diamond Earrings

The hardest, rarest, densest natural substance known to man contained within earrings. A precious gemstone composed of pure Carbon. A diamond's quality is rated in accordance with the Four C's: Cut, Color, Clarity and Carat Weight. While Africa is known as the Diamond continent, it is actually in Australia that the largest reserves are to be found - including the very rare and highly valued pink and red fancy colored diamonds.
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Diamond Pendants

The hardest, rarest, densest natural substance known to man contained within a pendant. A precious gemstone composed of pure Carbon. A diamond's quality is rated in accordance with the Four C's: Cut, Color, Clarity and Carat Weight. While Africa is known as the Diamond continent, it is actually in Australia that the largest reserves are to be found - including the very rare and highly valued pink and red fancy colored diamonds.
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Diamond Rings

The hardest, rarest, densest natural substance known to man contained within a ring. A precious gemstone composed of pure Carbon. A diamond's quality is rated in accordance with the Four C's: Cut, Color, Clarity and Carat Weight. While Africa is known as the Diamond continent, it is actually in Australia that the largest reserves are to be found - including the very rare and highly valued pink and red fancy colored diamonds.
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Diamond Cut

Small scallop-like bright cuts in metal created with a diamond cutting tool that create the illusion of diamonds being set into the metal.

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Diamond Grade

A value used in a diamond grading system to categorize the color or clarity of a Diamond.

diaStrings

Also know as diamond strings bracelets. Millions of people throughout the world have worn strings bracelets for thousands of years - They represent Love, Luck and Friendship. diaStrings are handcrafted on delicate yet very durable strings with luxurious finely detailed 14K Gold, and beautifully set with diamonds. diaStrings are completely water resistant, and can be comfortably worn 24/7, ANYWHERE! Let Gemologica.com help you find the perfect diamond string bracelet. Now whatever symbolism you value....is Forever!

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Dinner Rings

An oversized ring, set with non-precious or semiprecious stones.

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Dispersion

The fiery, rainbow colors emanating from a diamond as white light is broken-up into colors.

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Doublet

A doublet (also dublette) is a gem made from two layers in order to save expenses; the lower part of the composite stone is glass or a non-precious stone, the top is the more valuable stone. Many different types of doublets have been manufactured (including opal doublets). One common doublet contains a layer of real garnet and a layer of glass. A thin, red garnet top is glued to a colored glass bottom. A green glass bottom with a red garnet top layer produces an emerald-like stone. A diamond is enlarged by cementing it to a crystal base.

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Ear Cuff

An ear cuff is a curved band of metal that is pressed onto the helix of the ear. It stays on by pinching the ear.

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Ear Hook Earrings

A large hook like the fish hook that is big enough to hook and hang over the whole ear and dangles.

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Earring Jacket

An earring jacket is a decorative backdrop that surrounds a stud earring. The stud can be removed and placed into different jackets.

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Ear Screws

Screwed onto the lobe, allow for exact adjustment - an alternative for those who find clips too painful.

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EGL

European Gemological Laboratory - EGL has franchises in a number of cities around the world which grade diamonds and offer a diamond grading certificate.

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Electroplating

The process of coating a base metal with a thin film of gold by means of electrolysis. The base metal is set in a chemical solution (liquid conductor), which, as an electric current flows through it, coats it with precious metal.

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Embossed

A mechanical process done under considerable heat and pressure that permanently imprints a variety of unique grain effects into the leather surface.

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Emerald

Emerald, with its rich green reflecting the colors of spring, has been treasured for thousands of years as an emblem of rebirth and enduring love. Emeralds are made of the base mineral beryl, with minute traces of chromium and vanadium giving this gemstone the "green fire". Today, most emeralds are mined in Colombia, Brazil and Zambia. Colombian emeralds are known for their vivid green color, while Brazilian emeralds are known for their variety of color, ranging from light green to fine medium dark green. With hardness close to 8 on the Moh's scale, emeralds are quite durable. Emerald is the birthstone for May.

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Emerald Cut

A rectangular, faceted gemstone cut that was first used in emeralds. The emerald cut has a deep center that intensifies stone color.

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Engagement Ring

An engagement ring is set with a gemstone or diamond, and is traditionally given to a woman by a man to signify their intention to be married.

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Engraving

Engraving is the process of etching a design, initials, family crest or anything else into the surface of metal. The traditional method of hand engraving is becoming less common as it is replaced by sophisticated computerized techniques. An experienced and skillful hand engraver is difficult to find these days.

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Eternity Rings

Eternity rings are rings with stones, usually diamonds, of the same cut and size, set in one row all around the ring. The stones are usually round or square, and the setting is usually either claws or a channel setting. When the stones do not continue around the entire ring, but stop halfway around the finger, it is called a half-eternity ring.

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Eye-Clean

In clarity-grading, eye-clean diamonds should have no inclusions that are visible through the table to the unaided eye.

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Facet

A facet is a smooth, flat surface cut into a gemstone or diamond to refract and reflect light.

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Fancy Color Diamond

A diamond that exhibits a strong color, such as yellow, as opposed to an off colored white diamond. Fancy colored diamonds can be very expensive and are often highly prized by collectors. Fancy colored diamonds have been found in many colors of the spectrum.

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Fancy Shapes (or Cuts)

Gemstones or diamonds cut in any way other than round. Fancy shapes include marquise, emerald, pear, heart, oval, princess, baguette and trillion.

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Faux

Faux means false. A faux gem or diamond is an imitation.

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Feather

A feather is an inherent inclusion, or flaw, within a diamond or gemstone. It is often only a tiny crack. Depending on the depth or placement of the feather, these "fissures" as they are often called, can make a gemstone or diamond more fragile and susceptible to further cracking; However, it is possible that it may have no affect on the strength or beauty of the diamond whatsoever.

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Filigree

A filigree design is lace-like ornamental detail made from intricately arranged wires.

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Finish

The finish of a diamond refers to the polish on the external portion of a diamond. When a diamond or gemstone is well cut and polished, it is said to have a beautiful finish. Finish is also used to describe the polish or texture applied to the metal on an item of jewelry. Common finishes include high polish, matte, brushed, or Florentine.

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Fire

Fire is the rainbow prism of light that reflects from within a finished diamond or gemstone and is technically known as dispersion. The better a diamond or gemstone is cut or faceted, the more fire is emitted from within the gemstone.

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Fissure

A fissure is an elongated fracture or crack in the surface of a diamond or gemstone.

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Flat Wedding Bands

Flat wedding bands are the simplest form of ring that can be made. A flat wedding band basically consists of a strip of metal that is bent around into a loop and joined where the ends meet.

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Florentine Finish

A Florentine finish is a crosshatched pattern, tooled into the surface of metal. The lines are often coarser and more deeply incised than that on a brushed finish.

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Fluorescence

Fluorescence is the light that is emitted from a diamond when subjected to ultraviolet rays. This fluorescent glow is not considered when grading a diamond for quality (using the Four C's); it is simply an inherent characteristic of a diamond (or gemstone).

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Four C's

An abbreviation used to describe the Color, Clarity, Carat and Cut of a gemstone or diamond as defined by the G.I.A. The G.I.A. created a diamond grading system using the 4Cs.

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Fracture

A fracture is a crack or feather in a diamond or gemstone in the opposite direction of its naturally occurring crystals.

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French Back

A French back is an earring back for non-pierced ears where the earring is tightened against the earlobe by means of a screw.

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Freshwater Pearl

A freshwater pearl is formed in a lake or river. Freshwater pearls are known for their unusual forms.

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Friendship Rings

Friendship rings are used to symbolize a close relationship that has no romantic undertone.

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Garnet

Usually dark red stones, garnets can also occur in shades of green, yellow, orange, brown, pink and purple. The name "Garnet" is believed to have derived from "pomegranate" with its red, Garnet colored seeds. They are mined in Russia, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Argentina, Afghanistan, Madagascar, Canada, Mexico, Tanzania, India and the United States (California). It has a hardness of 6.5 --7.5 on the Moh's Scale. Garnet is the birthstone for January.

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Gemstone (Gem)

A stone that has been cut and polished for use in jewelry, which also fulfills the requirements of beauty, durability and rarity.

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Gemstone Bracelets

Common bracelets that contain a stone/stones that have been cut and polished for use in jewelry, which also fulfills the requirements of beauty, durability and rarity.

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Gemstone Earrings

Common earrings that contain a stone/stones that have been cut and polished for use in jewelry, which also fulfills the requirements of beauty, durability and rarity.

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Gemstone Pendants

Common pendants that contain a stone/stones that have been cut and polished for use in jewelry, which also fulfills the requirements of beauty, durability and rarity.

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Gemstone Rings

Common rings that contain a stone/stones that have been cut and polished for use in jewelry, which also fulfills the requirements of beauty, durability and rarity.

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German Silver

German silver (also know as nickel silver) is an alloy consisting of mostly copper (roughly 60 percent), and approximately 20 percent nickel, about 20 percent zinc, and sometimes about 5 percent tin (then the alloy is called alpaca). There is no silver at all in German silver. This alloy was invented around 1860 in Germany as a silver substitute.

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G.I.A."The Gemological Institute of America"

G.I.A. is a highly respected, not for profit organization, devoted to the promotion of education and ethics within the jewelry industry. G.I.A. also has a laboratory used to grade and identify gemstones.

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Girdle

The outermost (widest) edge of a diamond or gemstone. Girdle is the largest diameter of any part of a gemstone or diamond.

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Gold

A warm, yellow metal of great beauty, value and weight. In its pure state, measured as 24 karats, it is too soft to be worked for jewelry. Alloy metals are melded with pure gold to create harder substances and colors like white and pink gold. Eighteen karat gold is 18 of 24 parts pure gold, while 14 karat gold is 14 of 24 parts pure gold.

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Gold Bracelets

A common bracelet crafted of a warm, yellow metal of great beauty, value and weight. In its pure state, measured as 24 karats, it is too soft to be worked for jewelry. Alloy metals are melded with pure gold to create harder substances and colors like white and pink gold. Eighteen karat gold is 18 of 24 parts pure gold, while 14 karat gold is 14 of 24 parts pure gold.

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Gold Chains

A common chain crafted of a warm, yellow metal of great beauty, value and weight. In its pure state, measured as 24 karats, it is too soft to be worked for jewelry. Alloy metals are melded with pure gold to create harder substances and colors like white and pink gold. Eighteen karat gold is 18 of 24 parts pure gold, while 14 karat gold is 14 of 24 parts pure gold.

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Gold Earrings

Common earrings crafted of a warm, yellow metal of great beauty, value and weight. In its pure state, measured as 24 karats, it is too soft to be worked for jewelry. Alloy metals are melded with pure gold to create harder substances and colors like white and pink gold. Eighteen karat gold is 18 of 24 parts pure gold, while 14 karat gold is 14 of 24 parts pure gold.

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Gold Filled (also known as Gold Overlay)

An item made of a base metal such as brass or copper, to which a sheet of gold is bonded by pressure or other means. To qualify as gold filled, an article of jewelry must have a layer of gold at least 1/20th, or 5% of the weight of the entire article.

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Gold Pendants

A common pendant crafted of a warm, yellow metal of great beauty, value and weight. In its pure state, measured as 24 karats, it is too soft to be worked for jewelry. Alloy metals are melded with pure gold to create harder substances and colors like white and pink gold. Eighteen karat gold is 18 of 24 parts pure gold, while 14 karat gold is 14 of 24 parts pure gold.

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Gold Plated

A thin layer of electroplated gold that is on a base metal. All gold plated items are not plated with fine gold; some are only plated gold in color.

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Gold Rings

A common ring crafted of a warm, yellow metal of great beauty, value and weight. In its pure state, measured as 24 karats, it is too soft to be worked for jewelry. Alloy metals are melded with pure gold to create harder substances and colors like white and pink gold. Eighteen karat gold is 18 of 24 parts pure gold, while 14 karat gold is 14 of 24 parts pure gold.

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Grading Report

The grading report, also know as a certificate, is issued by an independent laboratory. It should accurately describe the proportions, weight, color, clarity, symmetry, polish and possible fluorescence seen in the diamond or gemstone being evaluated. Some labs such as the G.I.A. and A.G.S. are felt by many experts to be more consistent and stringent in their grading than some other labs.

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Grams

Grams, which is abbreviated GR, is usually used to express the weight of jewelry pieces. Grams is a metric unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram

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Half-Hoop Design Earring

Earring that appears to be hoop-shaped, not fully circular in shape.

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Half-round Rings

Half-round rings, also called D-shape rings, are flat wedding bands that are filed half-round on the outside.

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Hallmark

A hallmark is an official mark (or a series of marks) made in metal that indicates the fineness of the metal and the manufacturer's mark. For example, a hallmark of 925 indicates 925 parts of gold per 1000 weight. Other hallmarks indicate the maker of the piece and sometimes the year of manufacture. In many countries (like Britain) it is illegal to hallmark metal incorrectly; some countries are notoriously lax in their enforcement of hallmark honesty.

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Hand Made

A hand made piece of jewelry is created completely by hand. It is not assembled from parts or made in a die or mold in anyway whatsoever.

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Hardness

Hardness is a stone's ability to resist scratching, surface inclusions, abrasions or cracking.

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Heart and Arrows Cut

Hearts and Arrows is the term used for super ideal cut diamonds that exhibit a complete and precise Hearts & Arrows pattern. Hearts & Arrows diamonds have three distinguishing factors - perfection in polish, symmetry, and proportion. This effect is attained when all the facets are precisely aligned and the diamonds are cut and polished to perfection. In order for the diamond to attract and reflect the maximum amount of light, it must be cut with expert craftsmanship, precision and control. When these fine cutting techniques are employed, they produce diamonds that excel in brilliance, fire and scintillation.

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Heart Cut

A diamond or gemstone cut in the shape of a heart.

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Herkimer Diamond

Herkimer diamonds are clear, lustrous, doubly terminated crystals of quartz - they are not true diamonds. These brilliant stones are also called "Middleville Diamonds" or "Little Falls Diamonds." Herkimer diamonds have a hardness of 7.

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High Polish

High polish refers to the mirror-like surface of jewelry metal.

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Hoop Earrings

A circular earring made from metal wire or tubing.

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Hue

Hue is the term used for the actual color of the spectrum (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo or violet). The more pure a gemstone's hue, the more valuable. Because gemstones are comprised of many naturally occurring elements, they typically emit one primary color and one or more underlying colors.

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I.G.I.

I.G.I, which stands for the International Gemological Institute, is a laboratory that offers grading reports. I.G.I. also produces written appraisals.

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Illusion Setting

An illusion setting is used to make diamonds appear larger than they are.

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Imitations

Any gemstone or diamond that does not have the same chemical composition as the stones they resemble are imitations. They may be made by nature or man. For example, red glass can be a man-made imitation for ruby. Garnets used to mimic rubies would be natural imitations.

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Inclusion

An inclusion is a imperfection or flaw in a diamond or other gemstone that affects the stone's clarity. Many inclusions decrease the value of a stone, but some, like rutile forming asterisms in star sapphires and needles in rutilated quartz and tourmalinated quartz, are prized.

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Inlay

A decorative element, such as a stone or piece of metal, that is embedded in and is flush with another surface to form a pleasing pattern or shape.

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Iolite

Iolite is a transparent, violet-blue, light blue, or yellow-gray mineral that will show many colors in a single stone. It is a durable stone with a hardness of 7-7.5 on the Mohs scale. Most of the Iolite available today comes from Sri Lanka, India, Madagascar and Burma. Iolite has become the accepted anniversary gemstone for the twenty-first year of marriage.

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Iridescent

A shimmery effect best known in pearls and opals in which different colors are visible depending on how the light strikes the material.

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Irradiated Diamonds

Irradiated diamonds are diamonds that have been exposed to radiation. This changes the diamond's color (as the radiation changes the crystalline structure of the diamond). The change in the diamond is permanent. Older radiation treatments involving exposing the stone to radium; newer treatments bombard the stone with atomic particles in a cyclotron (which accelerates protons, neutrons, or alpha-partices to high speeds). Newer irradiation techniques bombard the crystal with atomic particles in a cyclotron, and then the stone is heated to about 800 degrees Centigrade, producing a stone with very little radioactivity and a permanent color change.

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Jade

The term jade actually refers to two distinct types of stone that closely resemble one another - the more common nephrite and the more expensive jadeite. Jadeite predominantly comes from Burma and while it is available in gray, yellow, pink, blue, lavender, red, white, brown and black, it is most popular in the classic green. The Chinese jade, has been a physical symbol of spiritual virtue. When jade is designed for jewelry it is said to fend off evil spirits. It has been given a reputation as a symbol for modesty, courage, wisdom, and justice.

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Jewelry

Jewelry is a form of personal adornment, manifesting itself as necklaces, rings, brooches, earrings and bracelets. Jewelry may be made from any material, usually gemstones, precious metals or shells. Factors affecting the choice of materials include cultural differences and the availability of the materials. Jewelry may be appreciated because of its material properties, its patterns or for meaningful symbols. Jewelry differs from other items of personal adornment in that it besides looking appealing, it often has no other purpose. Items such as belts and handbags are considered to be accessories rather than jewelry.

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J Hoop

A J hoop earring is one in which the hoop is elongated in a shape resembling the letter J.

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Jump Ring

A jump ring is an oval or round ring of metal wire used as an attachment loop on charms, as a pendant bail, or as an end ring on a chain.

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Karat

Karat (abbreviated K or Kt or Kts) is the measurement of gold used to note the purity and fineness of the metal. Pure gold is 24 karat and one karat is equal to1/24 part pure gold in an alloy. (14kt. gold is 14 parts gold and 8 parts other metal.)

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Karma Bracelets

Bracelets made from wood beads and may contain various charms. Associated with bringing good luck and good karma to those who wear it.

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Key Chains

A keychain or key chain is a small chain, usually made from metal or plastic, that connects a small item to a keyring. The length of a keychain allows an item to be used more easily than if connected directly to a keyring. Some keychains allow one or both ends the ability to rotate, keeping the keychain from becoming twisted, while the item is being used. A keychain can also be a connecting link between a keyring (a.k.a. "split ring") and the belt of an individual.

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Key Pendants

A Key Pendant is a great romantic symbol of undying love. The key to your heart ....

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Lapis Lazuli

This stones name comes from the Latin word for stone, lapis. Lapis lazuli is the only "rock" - composed of several minerals rather than a single one. The characteristic blue comes from sodalite minerals, with any white coming from calcite, and its sparkling gold flecks from pyrite. Lapis Lazuli is one of the most popular stone for men's jewelry and most commonly appears as beads or earrings in women's jewelry.

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Lariat

A type of necklace consisting of a long strand that is sometimes looped into a knot or used with a slide so the two ends hang free.

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Lavalier

A lavalier is a pendant with a dangling stone that hangs from a necklace.

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Length

Length is the linear measurement of a bracelet or necklace. An average ladies' bracelet is 7"in length and an average men's bracelet is 8" in length. The length of a necklace averages 16-24" in length.

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Lever Back Earring

A leverback earring is a style that latches behind the ear.

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Link Bracelets

Bracelets made from connecting or linking various or similar components or jewelry findings. Link bracelets can be made of a variety of materials included metals and gemstones.

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Lobster Claw Clasp

A clasp for a necklace or bracelet that has an elongated hook, which resembles a lobster claw. The hook has a spring mechanism and opens to clasp a small ring on the other end of the chain or strand.

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Locket

A locket is a pendant that opens to reveal a space used for storing a photograph or other small item such as a curl of hair. Lockets are usually given to loved ones on holidays such as Valentine's Day and occasions such as Christenings, weddings and, most noticeably during the Victorian Age, funerals.

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Loupe

A small magnifying lens, usually 10x magnification.

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Luster

Luster is the degree to which a diamond or gemstone reflects light.

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Magnetic Earrings

Magnetic earrings simulate the look of a (pierced) stud earring by attaching to the earlobe with a magnetic back that hold the earring in place on by magnetic force.

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Marquise

A gemstone shape pointed at both ends and oval shaped in the center.

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Matinee-length

A matinee-length necklace is a single strand that is from 22 to 23 inches (56 to 58 cm) long. Matinee-length generally refers to a string of pearls that hangs to the top of the cleavage.

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Matte Finish

Matte finish, also known as a brushed or satin finish, is a texturing technique used on jewelry metals where a series of tiny parallel lines are scratched on the surface with a wire brush.

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Melee

A melee is a small diamond, under .20 carats.

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Memory Wire

Memory wire is a tough, stiff wire that retains its shape. It is often used for necklaces and bracelets.

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Men's Jewelry

Men's jewelry is a form of personal adornment specifically sized and styled for men, manifesting itself as necklaces, rings, earrings and bracelets. Men's jewelry may be made from any material. Factors affecting the choice of materials include cultural differences and the availability of the materials. Men's jewelry may be appreciated because of its material properties, its patterns or for meaningful symbols.

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Metal

A solid mineral element, such as bronze or copper, that is able to conduct heat and electricity, is pliable under heat or pressure. Platinum, gold, and silver are considered precious metals.

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Mexican Diamond

Mexican diamond is a misleading term for rock crystal, and is not a diamond at all.

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Millimeters

Millimeters, which is abbreviated MM, is a metric measurement used for pearls, diamonds & gemstones.

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Mine Cut

Mine cut stones have a cushion-shaped girdle. This type of cut was popular in the late 1800's.

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Mohs Scale

The Moh's scale was devised in 1812 by Austrian mineralogist, Friedrich Moh, to measure a mineral's hardness and it's resistance to scratching. The scale goes from talc as number 1, being the softest, to diamonds as number 10, being the hardest substance known.

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Money Clips

A metal money clip is generally a solid piece of metal folded into half, such that the bills and credit cards are securely wedged in between the two pieces of metal. Metal money clips are typically made out of stainless steel, silver, gold, titanium, or platinum. They are typically sold as luxury items.

Montana Ruby

A Montana ruby is actually a pyrope garnet, and is not a ruby at all.

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Moonstone

Moonstone is the most valuable variety of feldspar with an iridescent sheen known as adularescence. Moonstone's characteristic shimmer is caused by the intergrowth of two different types of feldspar with different refractive indexes. Moonstones come in a variety of colors, ranging from colorless to gray, brown, yellow, green, or pink.

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Mother of Pearl (abbreviated MOP)

Mother of Pearl, which is abbreviated MOP, is the "Stone of Sincerity". It signifies faith, charity, and innocence, and is believed to enhance personal integrity. It has been used to inhibit boisterous behavior, and to provide a reflection of the self such that one may see the manner in which one appears to others. Absorbs negative energy, clarifies feelings, and stabilizes. Aids with allergies and asthma.

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Mother's Rings

A ring worn by a mother displaying the birthstone of each of her children, and sometimes including those of the mother and father.

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Mounting

Mounting is the process of setting or attaching a gemstone or diamond. It's also a piece of jewelry, into which gemstones or diamonds can be set.

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Mourning Rings

A ring worn in memory of someone who has died.

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Mystic Topaz

Mystic fire (also called mystic topaz or rainbow topaz) is topaz that has been color enhanced by coating it with a fine layer of metal atoms (in a process called vacuum deposition). This stone has red, green, violet, and blue streaks. Mystic fire has a hardness of 8.

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Natural

Natural gemstones and diamonds are material that has not been chemically or otherwise altered in anyway.

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Natural Pearls

Natural pearls are made without any human intervention.

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Necklace

A necklace is an article of jewellery which is worn around the neck. Necklaces are frequently formed from a metal jewellery chain, often attached to a locket or pendant. Necklaces can also be manufactured with cloth, and they sometimes contain rocks (particularly gems), wood, and/or shells with different shapes and sizes.

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Nickel Silver

Nickel silver (also know as German silver) is an alloy consisting of mostly copper (roughly 60 percent), and approximately 20 percent nickel, about 20 percent zinc, and sometimes about 5 percent tin (then the alloy is called alpaca). There is no silver at all in German/nickel silver. This alloy was invented around 1860 in Germany as a silver substitute.

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Oiling

Oiling, a process of applying mineral oil to a stone, is used to mask inclusions or enhance the color of a gemstone. Emeralds, although very valuable are typically infused with inclusions. Emeralds are often oiled to improve quality.

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Omega

An omega chain has closely interlocking links, which forms a flat, solid surface.

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Omega Back

An omega back is a hinged closure resembling the Latin letter, Omega, and is used to secure a post earring to the ear.

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Onyx

Onyx is a semiprecious type of chalcedony quartz that is found naturally in white or gray; however, it is typically dyed black.

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Opal

Unlike any other gemstone, opal dazzles the eye with a spectral display of flashing and dancing colors " colors that move and shift within the opal's mysterious depths. Opal is comprised mostly of tightly packed silica (sand) and water. The silica refracts light and creates the rainbow of colors for which opal is known. The wider and more brilliant the range of color in an opal, the more valuable it is. Opals vary widely in body color, with white being the most common. Most high-quality opals found today come from the deserts of Australia. Opal is the birthstone for October.

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Opal Triplet

An opal triplet is a manufactured stone that is composed of three thin layers that are glued together. A thin layer of opal is sandwiched between a layer of clear quartz and a layer of either obsidian or ironstone. The clear quartz is the top layer, making the gem harder (and less susceptible to scratches). An opal triplet is an opal doublet with a quartz layer on top. Triplets must be cleaned very carefully.

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Opaque

Opaque means blocking the passage of light (as opposed to translucent or transparent).

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Opera-Length

An opera-length necklace is a single strand that is from 30 to 35 inches (60 to 90 cm) long. Opera-length generally refers to a string of pearls that hangs to the breastbone.

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Optical Properties

An optical property is a gem's intrinsic ability to interact with light. Some optical properties are color, dispersion and fluorescence.

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Oval Cut

An oblong, faceted gemstone cut with rounded edges. It is a variation of the round brilliant cut. Oval cuts are popular for colored gemstones and diamonds.

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Palladium

A member of the Platinum group, Palladium is lighter and less expensive than platinum and is mixed with yellow gold to create white gold.

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Parure

A parure is a matching set of jewelry, usually containing a necklace, earrings, brooch and a bracelet (or two bracelets).

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Paste

Paste is glass that is cut and faceted to imitate gemstones.

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Pave Setting

A type of setting where several small gems are set together to give the appearance of an uninterrupted surface.

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Pavilion

The pavilion is the bottom or base portion of a diamond or gemstone; the lower part below the girdle.

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Pear Cut

A pear cut is a faceted cut that is teardrop shaped. Pear cuts are popular for pendants, rings and earrings, and are suitable for diamonds and colored gemstones.

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Pearl

Long known as the "Queen of Gems", the pearl possesses a history and allure more compelling than any other gem. Pearls grow in both saltwater and freshwater mollusks and come in a variety of hues from white to blue, green, aubergine, pink, gold, gray and black. Traditionally worn as strings, or set as pendants, today pearl rings are also popular particularly with the rare and unusual black pearls. Pearl is the birthstone for June.

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Pendant

A charm or other item worn on a chain that swings freely.

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Penny Weight

Pennyweight, abbreviated PWT, is a unit of measurement used for precious metals. Pennyweight is equal to 1/20th of an ounce.

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Peridot

The peridot reflects a variety of green hues, from dark leek green to a lighter yellow green. Peridot is a gemstone variety of chrysolite that varies in color depending upon the balance of iron and magnesium within the stone. The dominant source of peridot today is Arizona, with other significant deposits in Myanmar, Brazil, Australia, Norway and Africa. Peridot is the birthstone for August.

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Pierced Earrings

Earrings designed for pierced ears. A wire or post is inserted through the ear lobe.

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Pinky Rings

A ring worn on the pinky finger.

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Platinum (abbreviated PT or PLAT)

Platinum, which is abbreviated PT or PLAT, is the most precious metal in jewelry making. It has a silvery-white tone and does not tarnish. In addition, it is one of heaviest known substances.

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Plumb Gold

A term used to describe gold jewelry that contains the precise amount of gold in the alloy that the Karat mark indicates. In the past an item marked 14Kt could legally have been 13.5 karat and still considered 14K. Today an item marked 14k must be at least 14 of 24 parts fine gold and is considered plumb gold.

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Point

A unit of measure used to express the weight of gemstones, equal to 1/100th of a carat. Twenty-five points (25) describes a 1/4 carat diamond.

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Polished Surface

A smooth and glossy surface, with no visible imperfections.

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Post

A pin-like piece of metal attached to an earring. The post passes through the wearer's pierced earlobe and is usually held in place by an earring back.

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Precious Metal

Three metals -- gold, silver and platinum -- that have been prized for centuries for rarity, beauty and physical properties.

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Precious Stone

Four gemstones -- diamond, emerald, ruby and sapphire -- that are especially prized for beauty and rarity.

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Pre-Engagement Ring

An engagement style ring set with a very small diamond, given in lieu of an engagement ring or as a prelude to an engagement ring. Also called a promise ring.

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Premium Cut

The brilliance of a diamond depends on proper cutting. Premium cut to Ideal cut diamonds ensure that the diamond chosen will be as brilliant as it is beautiful. A diamond with these premium proportions will cost more but its brilliance is well worth the added investment.

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Princess Cut

A square, faceted gemstone cut. The princess cut has a broad, flat face area and parallel V-shaped grooves underneath with a border of variously shaped facets. This cut provides excellent light refraction and is a popular for diamonds.

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Princess Length

A princess length necklace (usually referring to a string of pearls) is 18" long.

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Promise Ring

A pre-engagement ring offered with the promise of ones heart. Typically similar to an engagement ring with a very small diamond, maybe 5 points in size.

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Prong Setting

A setting used for diamonds and gemstones whereby a group of claws or prongs hold a gemstone in its mounting.

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Purity Necklaces

Also known as chastity necklaces, or abstinence necklaces. Wearing a purity necklace is typically accompanied by a vow to practice abstinence until marriage.

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Purity Rings

Also known as chastity rings, or abstinence rings. Wearing a purity ring is typically accompanied by a vow to practice abstinence until marriage.

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Quartz

A crystalline mineral used for gems, including amethyst and rock crystal. Available in a variety of colors.

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Radiant Cut

Radiant cut gemstones have a total of 70 facets, combining the shape of an emerald cut gem and the sparkle of a brilliant cut square or rectangular gem.

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Reconstructed Stone

A reconstructed stone is one that is made from pieces of smaller stones or crystals). Reconstructed stones often have telltale air bubbles. For example, "Geneva rubies" (reconstructed rubies) are made from tiny ruby crystals that have been fused together. This type of stone is generally no longer manufactured (except reconstructed amber, which is still made) because synthetic stones are vastly superior to reconstructed stones.

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Retro

Retro jewelry is chunky, geometric jewelry from the 1940's. Pink gold was often used in retro pieces.

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Rhinestones

Rhinestones, abbreviated RS, is highly reflective glass made to imitate gemstones. The original rhinestones were quartz stones (rock crystal) obtained from the Rhine River. These stones were cut to resemble gemstones. The best rhinestones today are made of highly reflective leaded glass, which is faceted and polished.

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Rhodium

Rhodium is a metal that is part of the platinum family. Silver, gold, and even base metals are often Rhodium plated to give them the white, shiny look associated with platinum. Genuine rhodium in raw state is liquid. Although in the platinum family of metals, it is not the same as platinum, which is a solid precious metal.

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Rhodium Plating

Rhodium is used to plate white gold or yellow gold or sterling, because it is harder and more reflective and white in color. Rhodium plating gives a bright, shiny, long-lasting silver-colored finish to a piece. With Rhodium plating you can achieve the high white luster of Platinum. For people who are allergic to 10k or 14k gold jewelry, and cannot afford the high price associated with Platinum, Rhodium plating helps minimizing allergic effects and is a good alternative. It is noted that any kind of plating will eventually wear off, requiring additional plating to maintain the desired coloring effect.

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Rolled Gold

Rolled gold is a very thin sheet of gold that is laminated to a lesser metal (usually brass). The two layers of metal are heated under pressure to fuse them together. The sheet is them rolled into a very thin sheet and then used to make jewelry or other objects. Jewelry made from rolled gold wear well over time. Rolled gold pieces are marked rolled gold plate, R.G.P., or plaquT d'or laminT.

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Round Cut

Round brilliant cut gemstones are known to have the most vibrancy and sparkle. With 57 or 58 facets radiating from the center out to the girdle, a brilliant cut maximizes the amount of light that is reflected from the core of the gemstone.

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Rope Chain

A rope chain is a spiral-like chain with an appearance of two thick, woven strands.

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Rosary Ring

A rosary ring is a ring worn around the finger with 10 indentations and a cross on the surface, representing one decade of a rosary. The rings are used to keep track of place in the prayer by rotating the ring on a finger and feeling the marks.

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Rose Quartz:

Carried by people to insure peace, fidelity, and happiness. People believed rose quartz could emit a calm and cool energy, which would enable it to gently remove all negativity and allow a person to feel the loving, gentle forces of self-love. People felt this stone was good to wear in a chaotic or crisis situation, and they referred to it as "the stone of gentle love" because they believed it to be able to bring peace and calm to all relationships. It was also thought to be an excellent energy for healing emotional "wounds". Great for attraction love.

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Ruby

A member of the corundum family of gems, the ruby is a red, clear stone. Known as the "king of gems" the ruby is second only in value to diamond (exceptional specimens surpass diamonds in value). Rubies are mined in Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Kenya and Tanzania. Ruby is the birthstone for July.

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Safety Catch

A safety catch is a secondary closure, used in case the main clasp opens. It is usually a hinged loop that is attached to one side of the clasp and snaps closed onto the other side.

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Sapphire

A member of the corundum family of gems, sapphires are most commonly known for their deep blue color, although sapphires can also be pink, orange, yellow, green, purple and colorless. Sapphires are found in Kashmir, Myanmar Sri Lanka, Thailand, China, India, Cambodia, Australia and the United States (Montana). Sapphire is the birthstone for September.

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Sardonyx

Believed to be able to lead a person to high position, honor, renown, and financial rewards. It was said that if you hung sardonyx around your neck, it could ease pain, give a person self-control, help to attract friends, insure a happy marriage, and bring success in legal matters. It was also believed to be able to restrain people who were inclined to dissipation, and to be able to protect the wearer from all infections.

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Satin Finish

Satin finish, also known as a brushed or matte finish, is a texturing technique used on jewelry metals where a series of tiny parallel lines are scratched on the surface with a wire brush.

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Saturation

Saturation is the intensity of brightness or dullness of the color. The more color saturated a gemstone is, the more valuable it becomes.

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Scintillation

Scintillation (sparkle) is the tiny flashes of light noticeable in a diamond when the observer moves his/her head.

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Screw Back

A screw back is an ear nut that screws onto a threaded earring post; usually used with diamond stud earrings.

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Semi-mount

A semi-mount is a finished item of jewelry except for the center stone setting, to which a stone is added separately.

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Semi-precious Gemstones

A group of gemstones that are prized for their beauty, but are not one of the four so-called precious stones (Diamond, Emerald, Ruby or Sapphire).

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Setting

Setting refers to the style in which a gemstone is held by precious metal into a mounting. Common settings include bezel, pave', channel or prong. Setting also refers to the part of jewelry in which one or more stones are set.

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Shank

The shank is the round body of the ring that encircles the finger, not including the setting.

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Shape

There are eight common diamond shapes. They are round, marquise, pear, oval, heart, princess/radiant, emerald, and trillion. The round is the most popular (the rest are called fancy-shaped). There are also other shapes created and sold by manufacturers.

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Shoulder

The part of the ring that extends from the shank to the center of the setting.

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Signet

A ring with a flat table or face on which there is an inscription of a coat of arms, family crest or some other type of insignia or monogram.

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Signet Rings

An emblematic, often familial, ring, often bearing a coat of arms, fit for use to imprint a wax seal on documents etc.

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Silver

Fine silver is a white precious metal that is 999/1000 pure in its natural form and too soft for practical use. Sterling silver is a shiny mixture of 92.5 % pure silver (925 parts) with 7.5 % metal alloy used for jewelry.

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Slap Bracelets

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, "slap bracelets" -- flat, felt-covered metal strips that curved around one's wrist when gently hit against it-- were a popular fad. Often adorned with neon colors and vivid graphics, these bracelets could be found at inexpensive retailers. A rumor emerged that "slap bracelets" caused injury and thus fell out of style.

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Silver Finish

Jewelry finished to have the look of silver.

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Sleeve Rings

Sleeve rings are rings that consist of a thin inner ring or sleeve, with several other rings stacked onto it to form one solid ring. The rings can either be soldered onto the sleeve or the ends of the sleeve can be upset (like a tube rivet) to keep them all together. A little of both can also be done.

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Slide Bracelet

A slide bracelet (also called slide charm bracelet) is a type of modern-day charm bracelet made from stringing Victorian era watch fob charms together on a double chain - the charms can slide along the chains. When pocket watches (used by men) and necklace watches (used by women) went out of style after wrist watches were invented, the charms on the watch chain were removed and then strung together to make bracelets. Modern imitations are made using modern-manufactured charms.

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Smokey Quartz

A dark variety of quartz that is deep brown in color with a smoky appearance.

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Snap-bar Closure Earrings

A straight, hinged bar that lifts up and down in order to secure or release an earring.

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Solitaire

A single gemstone or diamond that is mounted in a simple setting.

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Solitaire Rings

Solitaire rings are rings with a single large stone as a centrepiece, usually a diamond or gemstone.

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Sparkle

The sparkle of a diamond or gemstone is the result of the facets that are cut to reflect light. Sparkle is also referred to as brilliance.

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Spring Hoop Earrings

Spring hoops are almost indistinguishable from standard hoop earrings and stay in place by means of spring force.

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Spring Ring

A spring ring is a round, tubular metal fastening ring with a spring gap. A spring-loaded arm keeps the clasp closed.

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Stack Ring

Rings that are designed to be worn two or more at a time on the same finger.

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Stainless Steel

An extremely durable metal alloy that is virtually immune to rust, discoloration and corrosion. It can be highly polished to resemble a precious metal. Because of its strength, stainless steel is often used to make the case backs for watches.

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Stainless Steel Bracelets

An extremely durable metal alloy that is virtually immune to rust, discoloration and corrosion, and has become a popular metal for making bracelets as of late. It can be highly polished to resemble a precious metal. Because of its strength, stainless steel is often used to make the case backs for watches.

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Stainless Steel Earrings

An extremely durable metal alloy that is virtually immune to rust, discoloration and corrosion, and has become a popular metal for making earrings as of late. It can be highly polished to resemble a precious metal. Because of its strength, stainless steel is often used to make the case backs for watches.

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Stainless Steel Pendants

An extremely durable metal alloy that is virtually immune to rust, discoloration and corrosion, and has become a popular metal for making pendants as of late. It can be highly polished to resemble a precious metal. Because of its strength, stainless steel is often used to make the case backs for watches.

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Stainless Steel Rings

An extremely durable metal alloy that is virtually immune to rust, discoloration and corrosion, and has become a popular metal for making rings as of late. It can be highly polished to resemble a precious metal. Because of its strength, stainless steel is often used to make the case backs for watches.

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Stamping

Stamping is cutting or embossing a sheet of metal with a punch or a die.

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Star Setting

A star setting is one in which a gemstone or diamond is set within an engraved star; the gem is secured by a small grain of metal soldered to the base of each ray of the star.

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Step-Cut

A gem cut with a varying number of sloping parallel rows of four-sided facets that give the impression of steps.

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Sterling Silver

The designation for a relatively pure silver alloy consisting of 925 parts silver and 75 parts of another metal.

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Sterling Silver Bracelets

A common bracelet made of relatively pure silver alloy consisting of 925 parts silver and 75 parts of another metal.

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Sterling Silver Earrings

Common earrings made of relatively pure silver alloy consisting of 925 parts silver and 75 parts of another metal.

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Sterling Silver Chains-Necklaces

A common chain-necklace made of relatively pure silver alloy consisting of 925 parts silver and 75 parts of another metal.

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Sterling Silver Pendants

A common pendant made of relatively pure silver alloy consisting of 925 parts silver and 75 parts of another metal.

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Sterling Silver Rings

A common ring made of relatively pure silver alloy consisting of 925 parts silver and 75 parts of another metal.

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Stick-on Earrings

Stick-on earrings are adhesive-backed items which stick to the skin of the earlobe and simulate the look of a (pierced) stud earring. They are considered a novelty item.

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Strap/bracelet

A watchband made of leather, plastic, fabric or metal.

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Striations

Striations are grooves, lines and scratches found naturally in some minerals.

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Stud Earrings

Stud earrings, also called studs, are a small, simple style of earring for pierced ears. Studs contain a single stone (such as a pearl, gemstone or diamond) or metal ball on a straight post. Diamond studs are probably the most popular type of Diamond earrings.

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Spiney Oyster Shell

Used in Southwestern jewelry since prehistoric times, as a base for intricate inlay. Shells symbolize the life that flourished in the mystical oceans, far away from the desert southwest.

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Sugalite

Sugalite is an unusual deep purple stone from Southern Africa.

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Symmetry

The symmetry of a diamond or gemstone is the uniform degree to which a gemstone is cut. It has a hardness of 6 - 6.5 on the Moh's Scale. Sugilite is found in Japan, Canada and South Africa.

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Synthetic Gemstones

Synthetic gemstones, also called created, lab grown, or man-made, are materials produced in a laboratory, which imitate the characteristics of naturally occurring gems. Often difficult to distinguish from natural gemstones, synthetic gems are typically created with little or no imperfections.

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Table

The table is the flat facet on the top of a gemstone, located in the center of the crown.

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Tahitian Pearls

Tahitian pearls, also know as black pearls, are gray to black with green, blue or rose overtones.

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Tanzanite

A relative newcomer to the jewelry industry, tanzanite was discovered in 1967. It was named for its country of origin, Tanzania. Tanzanite has quickly won over gem lovers with velvety purple and blue hues. A tanzanite can appear blue, purple or reddish from different angles.

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Tapered Baguette

A baguette in which the two short edges are unequal in length causing the longer sides to taper in towards the short edge. Tapered baguettes are very popular as accents in the settings of engagement rings.

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Tennis Bracelet

A tennis bracelet is made of matched gemstones or diamonds. It is flexible and is usually worn loose around the wrist.

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Tension Setting

In a tension setting, the center stone appears to be suspended in mid-air. This way, light refraction and therefore brilliance is indeed maximized.

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The Hoop

A hoop threads over the ear and hangs from just inside the ear, above where ears are pierced. Mobiles or other dangles can be hung from the hoop to create a variety of styles.

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Three-stone diamond ring

A style of a ring which has three diamonds. The diamonds represent the past, present and future of a relationship. The center stone is usually slightly larger.

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Tie Clips

There have been many forms of tie-control devised since the 19th century, when ties first became a regular part of fashion. Clips, chains, pins have all been used to do one simple thing: to keep a tie from flapping, falling or otherwise presenting anything other than a neat appearance. A tie clip (also tie slide, tie bar, or tie clasp) is just one form of a neckwear accessory that clips a tie to the underlying shirt front, preventing it from swinging and ensuring the tie hangs straight, resulting in a neat, uniform appearance. Tie clips are usually made of metal and often have minor decorative patterns.

Tiffany Setting

A solitaire style setting that has a four or six prong head or setting. It is usually used for rings or earrings.

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Titanium

A very light, durable, hypoallergenic metal of a silvery color. It is popular among active people who don't want to worry about scratching their jewelry.

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Titanium Earrings

Earrings made of a very light, durable, hypoallergenic metal of a silvery color. It is popular among active people who don't want to worry about scratching their jewelry.

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Tone

Tone represents how light or dark a stone appears by how much brown, black, gray or white is present.

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Topaz

Topaz comes in a variety of colors, shapes and sizes making it ideal for a wide variety of jewelry. The world's largest supplier of topaz is Brazil and is the birthday stone for November.

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Total Weight

Total weight, abbreviated as t.w. or tw, is the sum of the carat weight of all of the gemstones or diamonds in a piece of jewelry.

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Tourmaline

Tourmaline comes in all spectrums of color, the most common being green and pink. With a hardness of 7-7.5, this gem is ideal for all types of jewelry setting.

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Trillion Cut

Trillion cut, also called trilliant or triangle, is a triangular shaped diamond or gemstone.

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Trinity Rings

Trinity rings or Trilogy Rings are three rings to be worn at one time.

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Translucent

Translucent materials allow light to pass through them, but the light is diffused (scattered). Some translucent stones include moonstones, opals, and carnelian.

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Transparent

Transparent materials allow light to pass through them without diffusing (scattering) the light. Some translucent stones include diamond, zircon, emerald, rock crystal, and ruby.

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Trembler

A trembler is a piece of jewelry that has a part (or parts) set on a spring; the spring-set parts move as the wearer of the jewelry moves.

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Troy Weight

Precious metals (like gold, platinum, and silver) are measured in troy weight, which has units of pennyweights, ounces, and pounds. Troy ounces and pounds are different from everyday US measures.

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Turquoise

Turquoise is the heart of Southwestern tradition. In Native American lore, turquoise is referred to as the Sky Stone, representing the eternal heavens, the life giving sun, renewing rains. According to Navajo legend, the sun was created from a piece of turquoise, the moon from a piece of shell. Turquoise is the first recorded stone in history to be used as a gem. Turquoise is currently mined in Arizona and New Mexico, USA; Australia; Afghanistan; and Iran, which produces the finest quality of Turquoise. It is the birthday stone for December.

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Ultrasonic cleaner

A machine that cleans jewelry by using a fluid that vibrates at high frequencies (20,000 cycles per second).

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Wedding Ring

A ring presented in many marriage ceremonies to signify marital commitment. Originally worn only by the woman, it is now common for both spouses to wear such a ring.

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Wedding Set

A woman's wedding and engagement ring designed to be worn together. Sometimes the wedding ring is shaped so that it fits around the solitaire engagement ring, making the set look like a single piece.

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Wedding Trio

A three-piece wedding ring set consisting of his and her matching wedding rings and a matching engagement ring.

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White Gold

White gold is alloyed with nickel and Zinc.

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Width

Width is the horizontal measurement of an item of jewelry measured across the widest area.

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Yellow Gold

The most popular gold alloy. An alloy of gold, silver, copper and zinc.

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Y-necklace

This style gets its name from its shape, which features its own delicate dangle that forms a Y around the neck (Usually 16 to 18 inches in length).